罗伯特·比尔，现代警察 创始人 英国 罗伯特-比尔 爱尔兰皇家警察。
- Robert bill
- 成 就
- 国 籍
The police are the public and the public are the police(警察就是公众，公众就是警察); the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence
Peels Nine Principles of Policing(九条原则)
The basic mission for which the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder.
The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions.
Police must secure the willing co-operation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public.
The degree of co-operation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionately to the necessity of the use of physical force.
Police seek and to preserve public favour, not by pandering to public opinion, but by constantly demonstrating absolutely impartial service to law, in complete independence of policy, and without regard to the justice or injustices of the substance of individual laws; by ready offering of individual service and friendship to all members of the public without regard to their wealth or social standing; by ready exercise of courtesy and friendly good humour; and by ready offering of individual sacrifice in protecting and preserving life.
Police use physical force only when the exercise of persuasion, advice and warning is found to be insufficient to obtain public cooperation to an extent necessary to secure observance of law or to restore order; and to use only the minimum degree of physical force which is necessary on any particular occasion for achieving a police objective.
Police, at all times, should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition that the police are the public and the public are the police; the police being only members of the public who are paid to give full-time attention to duties which are incumbent on every citizen in the interests of community welfare and existence.
Police must recognize always the need for strict adherence to police-executive functions, and to refrain from even seeming to usurp the powers of the judiciary of avenging individuals or the state, and of authoritatively judging guilt and punishing the guilty.
The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it.
These nine principles were set forth by Sir Robert Peel, the founder of the British Police in 1822 and were taken from A Short History of the British Police, (London: Oxford University Press, 1948).